Lower Extremity •Each lower limb = 30 bones •femur and patella within the thigh •tibia & fibula within the leg •tarsal bones in the foot •metatarsals within the forefoot •phalanges in the toes •Joints •hip, knee, ankle •proximal & distal tibiofibular •metatarsophalangea The bones of the lower limb include the pelvic girdle, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, and bones of the foot. These are dis-cussed below. Pelvic Girdle The pelvic girdle contains the hip bone and the sacrum. As al-ready noted, the hip bone contains the ilium, ischium, and pubis (see Chapter 4). Recall that the iliac crest contains th Thirty-two (32) separate bones form the bony framework of each lower limb. The lower limbs carry the entire weight of the erect body and are subjected to exceptional forces when we jump or run. Thus, it is not surprising that the bones of the lower limb are thicker and stronger than the comparable bones of the upper limb BONES OF THE LOWER LIMB Dorsal surface FIGURE 2.8 surface Plantar surface FIGURE 2.7 Plantar surface Medial surface Weight bearing FIGURE 2.9 Medial surface o VFW (Deep) Superior gluteet äitbry gluteal + årtery Sctãtic nerve greater trochanter Iliac crest tuberosity Sacroiliberous of femur Sacrum Coccy Bones of the Lower Limb Function: Locomotion Carry weight of entire erect body Support Points for muscular attachments Components: Thigh Femur Knee Patella Leg Tibia (medial) Fibula (lateral) Foot Tarsals (7) Metatarsals (5) Phalanges (14
Lower Limb Conditions 521 Osteochondritis dissecans Osteochondritis dissecans usually involves the lateral side of the medial femoral condyle and occurs most commonly in adolescent boys. It usually results from trauma to the carti-lage with avascular changes in the underlying bone. As a result an area of cartilage abou The scaffold of the thigh is provided by the femur, the only bone of this region and the longest bone in the body. It has an upper extremity, a shaft, and a lower extremity, all of which are full of various structural landmarks. Several muscles attach to, and act on, the femur. They take full advantage of the mobility provided by two joints Like the upper limb, the lower limb is divided into three regions. The thigh is that portion of the lower limb located between the hip joint and knee joint. The leg is specifically the region between the knee joint and the ankle joint. Distal to the ankle is the foot.The lower limb contains 30 bones. These are the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges. Name. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. The bones of the lower limb can be divided into two functional components; the bones of the pelvic girdle and the bones of the free lower limb. The bones of the free lower limb include the femur, tibia, fibula, patella and bones of the foot
Arteries of upper limb Axillary artery Continuation of subclavian artery at lateral border of first rib Becomes brachial artery at lower border of teres major Divided into three parts by overlying pectoralis minor First portion, above muscle－gives rise to thoracoacromial a. Second portion, behind muscle－gives rise to lateral thoracic a The attached eBook of Lower limb anatomy contains self-prepared notes that will help you understand the concepts & theories and help you score well in your examinations. Details about the attached file -. The PDF version of the notes is attached for free and easy download at the bottom of this thread.. Thank you and wish you happy and fruitful. Like the upper limb, the lower limb is divided into three regions. The thigh is that portion of the lower limb located between the hip joint and knee joint. The leg is specifically the region between the knee joint and the ankle joint. Distal to the ankle is the foot.The lower limb contains 30 bones. These are the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges (see )
The lower limb joins the pelvic girdle in the hip joint. This girdle is composed of the 2 hip bones which join anteriorly at the pubic symphysis and posteriorly with the sacrum in the sacroiliac joints. The lower limb is supported by the heavy bones BD Chaurasia Human Anatomy Volume 2 PDF (Lower Limb, Abdomen and Pelvis) Volume 2 contains detailed information about the Bones of the lower limb, front of the thigh, medial side of the thigh, Gluteal region, popliteal fossa, Back of thigh, front, lateral and medial sides of leg and dorsum of foot, Back of leg, sole of the foot, venous and lymphatic drainage, segmental intervention, and. 22. Lower Limb anatomy Mcqs. Nishtar ken. Muhammad Ramzan UL Rehman 22 3. The Answer is D. The posterior cruciate ligament is important because it prevents forward displacement of the femur on the tibia when the knee is fl exed. The anterior cruciate ligament prevents backward displacement of the femur on the tibia. 4
. • Memorize the main features of the • Bones of the thigh (femur & patella) • Bones of the leg (tibia & Fibula). • Bones of the foot (tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges Chapter 5 (Lower limb) GENERAL OBJECTIVES: -recognize, name and correctly orient leg bones (tibia/fibula) and bones of the foot -explain how is anatomy of the leg and foot (in particular) fitting particular functions -name and describe all joints of the leg and foot focusing anatomical and functional properties -remember concepts and common. LOWER LIMB . PELVIC GIRDLE ilium pubis ischium pubic symphysis Sacrum acetabulum obturator foramen sacroiliac joint iliac fossa . greater sciatic notch ischial spine ischial tuberosity lesser sciatic notch iliac crest anterior superior iliac spine HIP (COXAL) BONE Posterior superior iliac spine . ANTERIOR FEMUR head fovea capitis neck patellar.
Lab 2 Bones of Lower Limb Author: HP Created Date: 3/4/2021 12:36:08 PM. Connection of the lower limb bones (juncturaeossium extremitatis inferioris) includes connection of pelvic girdle and free part of lower limb RNDr. MICHAELA RAČANSKÁ, Ph.D. LECTURE 9, DENTISTRY AUTUMN 201 View MTY Lower Extremity Bones 17-18.pdf from BIOLOGY 362 at Qatar University. Skeleton of Lower Extremity Prof Dr Mehtap Tiryakioglu Lower Extremity Sacroiliac joint t
.pdf from BIOS 311 at Northern Illinois University. BIOS 311 LOWER LIMB OSTEOLOGY LIST Pelvic (coxal) bone posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) posterio the musculoskeletal system including bones muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments and joints; damage to the nervous system Limb deformities: angular limb deformities and flexural limb deformities. Support Structure Lower Limb. Bowed Tendon Lots of rest Bones and Joints of the Lower Extremity Bone is a complex multi-purpose organ that consists of connective tissue comprised of a dense organic matrix combined with inorganic mineral components, including calcium and phosphorus, which comprise the 'skeleton' of the body. There are 206 bones in th
Preface: This fifth edition of McMinn's Colour Atlas of Foot and Ankle Anatomy, heralds 35 years of publication and brings some significant changes and most immediate to note is the new title, McMinn's Color Atlas of Lower Limb Anatomy, which we feel reflects more truly the overall direction and content of the book Description: The tibia is the larger and stronger of the two bones below the knee. It is the main weight-bearing bone of the lower limb and provides attachment to muscles that move the foot. It articulates with the femur to form the knee (proximally), and with the talus to form the ankle (distally). The main features at the proximal end are the.
Palpation of the upper and lower limbs arteries Arteries of the upper limb: 1. Brachial Artery: Brachial artery is a direct continuation of the axillary artery. It is found in the brachium (arm). It starts at the lower border of teres major and it ends in the cubital fossa exactly opposite to radial neck . Recognition of these pathologic conditions is important for differentiating those that will resolve spontaneously from those that require surgery or other treatment. ©RSNA, 200 joint care of patients with severe open fractures of the lower limb by plastic and or-thopaedic surgeons to minimize complications and optimize outcomes. The Standards for the Management of Open Fractures of the Lower Limb go beyond this to provide an evidence-based approach to improve the management of these uncom-mon, difficult injuries
with bone density deterioration, the changes in their bone density are easily observed in their hind limbs, which bear most of their weight, after they undergo sciatic neurectomy to induce lower-limb immobilization. In this study, sciatic ISSN 0970-938X www.biomedres.info Biomed Res 2017 Volume 28 Issue 18 807 . This is because a photograph views the bone from a ''point source'' which causes FIG. 2—A diagrammatic representation of a lower limb, as if lying on perspective changes to the ends of the bone. These do not occur for the the osteometric board Like the upper limb, the lower limb is divided into three regions. The thigh is that portion of the lower limb located between the hip joint and knee joint. The leg is specifically the region between the knee joint and the ankle joint. Distal to the ankle is the foot.The lower limb contains 30 bones. These are the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges The bones of the foot provide mechanical support for the soft tissues; helping the foot withstand the weight of the body whilst standing and in motion.. They can be divided into three groups: Tarsals - a set of seven irregularly shaped bones.They are situated proximally in the foot in the ankle area. Metatarsals - connect the phalanges to the tarsals individual muscles (Figs. 8-2, 3, 5a, 5b). The nerves for the upper limb are derived from C5-C7 (grow to the craniodorsal aspect of the limb) and from C8-T2 (grow into the ventrocaudal parts of the upper limb). Axons from these segmental nerves enter the branchial (or for the lower limb, lumbosacral) plexus and diverge at that point as indicated
Q. Describe the venous drainage of lower limb under the following heading: Superficial, perforating and deep veins. Factors that help in venous return. Applied anatomy. Q. Describe hip joint under the following headings: Type of joint and articular surfaces. Capsule and ligaments. Movements and muscles responsible. Applied anatomy So far, this is the first paper which provides an overview on the microarchitecture of lower limb long bones and discusses data related to osteon diameter, osteon canal diameter and their orientation, as well as intracortical canals and trabecular tissue microarchitecture in commonly used animal models compared to humans depending on age.
The Ulnar Nerve (claw hand ) نوكتب سب يوشا فخا لا نم Median arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus (C8 and T1), humerusThis nerve passes posterior to the medial epicondyle of the humerus . hard surface and the medial epicondyle if It enters the forearm by passing between the two heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle The humerus is the largest bone of the upper extremity and defines the human brachium (arm). It articulates proximally with the glenoid via the glenohumeral (GH) joint, and distally with the.
The Lower Limb Consists of; the gluteal region (buttocks) the thigh the leg, and the foot. www.anatsoc.org.uk Anatomical Society is a registered Charity No: 290469 and Limited Company Registered in England and Wales No: 01848115 | Registered office: Fairfax House, 15 Fulwood Place, London WC1V 6A Functions of the Lower Limb Support the body. BD Chaurasiya Human Anatomy Volume 1 PDF (UPPER LIMB AND THORAX) This book covers a vast portion of the upper body anatomy. It comprises of highly detailed and well-versed chapters on the bones of upper limbs as well as the pectoral region, scapular region, the forearm and the anatomy of the hand, joints of upper limbs and so on BD Chaurasia Human Anatomy Volume 1 PDF (UPPER LIMB AND THORAX) This book covers a vast portion of the upper body anatomy. It comprises highly detailed and well-versed chapters on the bones of upper limbs as well as the pectoral region, scapular region, the forearm and the anatomy of the hand, joints of upper limbs, and so on Infection of bone (osteomyelitis) in and of itself has long been the culminating event leading to many non-traumatic lower extremity amputations. However, in the diabetic population osteomyelitis has emerged as one of the dominant complications of long standing diabetic foot ulcers. Reports have indicated that diabetic persons have approximatel
Human Body Quiz: Lower Limb Anatomy. You must take this human anatomy test on lower extremity if you are preparing to establish your career in the field of physiology and anatomy. It has up to a hundred essential questions of the same topic that can put your knowledge on tests and help you practice better for the exam BD CHAURASIA LOWER LIMB PDF. Essential part of the text and some diagrams from the first edition have been incorporated glorifying the real author and artist in BD Chaurasia. A number of. : BD Chaurasia's Human Anatomy Vol2 (lower limb, abdomen & pelvis) with CD 6E. This book is written and published by Late Dr BD Chaurasia The thigh, leg, and foot constitute the lower limb. The bones of the lower limbs are considerably larger and stronger than comparable bones of the upper limbs because the lower limbs must support the entire weight of the body while walking, running, or jumping. Figure 1 illustrates features of the 30 bones of each lower limb. Figure 2
Anatomy of the lower extremity arteries and bones: angiographic 3D view Anatomy of the arteries and bones of the lower limb based on 3D pictures and angiogram (angiography). This part of the interactive atlas of anatomy of the human body is about the arterial vasculature of the pelvic girdle, pelvis, thigh, knee, leg and foot and the study of. This fine rubbery tissue acts as a cushion between the bones of the joints. 9. The total number of bones in lower extremity is _____ A. 62 B. 63 C. 61 D. 60. Answer: a Clarification: The total number of bones in the lower extremity is 62. Pelvic girdle 2, Thighs 2, knee cap 2, lower legs 4, ankles 14, soles 10, toes 28 Purpose: To describe scintigraphic characteristics of bone allografts used in limb salvage reconstruction after resection of lower extremity osteosarcoma. Materials and methods: The authors reviewed 85 skeletal scintigrams of 20 pediatric patients followed up for 0.5-5.7 years after resection of lower extremity osteosarcoma and allograft reconstruction The majority of the bones studied had a single nutrient foramen, which may represent a single source of blood supply. The mean foraminal index for the upper limb bones was 55.2% for the humerus, 35.7% for the radius, and 37.9% for the ulna, and for the lower limb bones, 43.7% for the femur, 32.7% for the tibia a nd 46.1% for the fibula
1. J Biomech. 2010 Mar 22;43(5):826-35. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2009.11.022. Epub 2009 Dec 23. Structural behaviour and strain distribution of the long bones of the human lower limbs March 15, 2017 Anatomy, Lower Limb anatomical position of hip bone, attachments on ilium, differences between male and female hip bone, general features of ilium, ossification of hip bone, Parts of hip bone, pubis and ischium, side determination of hip bone, structures passing through greater and lesser sciatic foramen. POONAM KHARB JANGHU Corse Outline Extent of Lower Limb Bone, Joints, Muscles, Blood Vessels, Nerves and Movements Possible at Lower Limb Learning OBJECTIVES Recognize different parts of lower limb Define different land marks in different regions of lower limb Describe regions of lower limb Enumerate the bones and joints of lower limb Describe the vessels and nerves of lower limb Discuss movements possible at. The majority of radiographs of the distal portions of equine limbs are obtained with portable x-ray units. These units are small and relatively lightweight. These are low output units, typically in the range of 10-30 mA and 70-90 kVp. X-ray units at the lower end of this range are suitable for distal limb radiographs only
kenhub, anatomy the lower limb quizzes part 3 20 questions, breast anatomy mcqs fcps pretest series, uams gross anatomy, buttocks wikipedia, questions of the lower limb anatomy mcqs part 01, instant anatomy questions, gluteal region anatomy and significance bone and spine, a urinary bladder pelvis perineum mcqs block 1 1, mcqs of anterio Sirenomelia is classified by the skeletal structure of the lower limb, ranging from class I, where all bones are present and only the soft tissues are fused, to class VII where the only bone present is a fused femur. It has also been classified as an expanded part of the VACTERL association and as a form of caudal regression syndrome Lower limb bones tend to be longer; increase leverage, stronger. •These limbs rotate during development. At 4-5 weeks of age, the upper limbs begin to develop (bud out) in the embryo. As this happens, it rotates in a lateral orientation (outwards), bringing the flexor surfaces anteriorly. Few weeks later our lower limbs begin to bud out and. Bones & Joints of Lower Limb-M. T. El Rakhawy Anatomy of Lower Limb full colored pictures with lables suitable for medical students Netter Correlative Imaging: Musculoskeletal Anatomy E-book-Nancy M. Major 2010-11-29 Musculoskeletal Anatomy is the first title in the brand new Netter's Correlative Imaging series G24- Upper Limb Overview, Shoulder, and Axilla G25- Arm and Elbow G26- Forearm and Wrist G27- Hand G28- Hip and Posterior Compartment of the Thigh G29- Anterior and Medial Thigh G30- Leg and Knee G31- Foot and Ankle GROSS ANATOMY Lecture Syllabus 2008 Unit #4: Upper and Lower Limbs ANAT 6010 - Gross Anatomy Department of Neurobiology and Anatom
Muscles of the Lower Limb Iliacus (part of iliopsoas) ORIGIN: Iliac fossa (ilium); crest of os coxa; ala (sacrum) INSERTION: lesser trochanter (femur) INNERVATION: femoral nerve ACTION: flexes thigh (Anterior view) Muscles Moving Thigh - Anterior Psoas major (part of iliopsoas) ORIGIN: T 12 - (ilium)L Other related documents Study Guide- bones 4. Lower Limb - Lecture notes from the textbook with emphasis on what the professor covered 7. The Neck - Lecture notes from the textbook with emphasis on what the professor covered Upper Limb - Dr. Aqua OT Anatomy Course Anatomy UEOral Cavity Human Anatomy Lab Bones
the bone is mainly through small areas where ligaments attach. The precarious blood supply is important in prognosis. The bone may also be fractured through the body itself and through its medial process. These rare injuries will not be specifically discussed. 1.11. Os calcis fracture: a fracture of the os calcis (also known as the calcaneum o Bones of the Face The face is made up of 14 bones: mandible • vomer • 2 (paired) maxillary bones • 2 (paired) zygomatic bones • 2 (paired) nasal bones • 2 (paired) lacrimal bones • 2 (paired) palatine bones • 2 (paired) inferior nasal conchae The mandible (lower jaw) is the largest strongest bone of the face and contains the following features reSiduaL LiMb Pain Pain in the limb between the end of the residual limb and the next most proximal joint Etiology Key Historical or Examination Features Evaluation Treatment Non-pharmacological Pharmacologic Mechanical Exacerbated by use of the prosthesis Associated with residual limb findings of redness, callous or ulceration Evaluate prostheti Osteotomy is done to correct deformity of bones. Arthrodesis is done to correct deformity of joints. Let us now take a close look at one pioneering technique - limb deformity and limb length discrepancy correction by the Ilizarov technique. The advantages of this method are that the patient remains on weight bearing throughout treatment and. Patterning of Upper & Lower Limbs 2021 Shoulder, Brachial Plexus, & Arm 2021. Forearm, Wrist, & Hand 2021. Spine, Hip, & Thigh 2021. Knee & Distal Lower Limb 2021 Bones, Joints and Movement Overview of Upper Limb. Shoulder and Brachial Plexus. Shoulder and Brachial Plexus - Written Learning Objectives.
Limb development occurs at different times for forelimbs and hindlimbs. In the mid-4th week, human upper limb buds first form and lower limbs about 2 days later. The limbs form at vertebra segmental levels C5-C8 (upper limbs) L3-L5 (lower limbs). Limb Axis Formatio A collection of articles relating to lower limb anatomy, including bones of the foot, muscles of the thigh and more. Clinical Examination A comprehensive collection of clinical examination OSCE guides that include step-by-step images of key steps, video demonstrations and PDF mark schemes The present study assessed the accuracy of 3D femur and tibia models created from Black Bone 3T MRI and high resolution CT scans taken from 12 intact cadaveric lower limbs by comparing them with scans of the de‐fleshed and cleaned bones carried out using a high‐resolution portable compact desktop 3D scanner (Model HDI COMPACT C210.
The osteology of the lower limb is particularly detailed, with 3D view and patterns of bone structures and muscle insertions and ligaments of the hip bone, the femur, the patella, tibia, the fibula, tibial plateau, the tibial pilon, the foot (talus, calcaneus, cuboid, cuneiform bones, metatarsal bones, phalanges proximal, middle and distal) lower limb amputation. This booklet gives you information about having a lower limb amputation, what you can expect after the surgery, and your rehabilitation. 2 and bones. An amputation might be needed to remove the infection. People with diabetes also have an increased risk of blood vessel narrowing
The pelvis is an irregularly shaped bone consisting of right and left pelvic bones. The pelvic bones articulate posteriorly with the sacrum, via the sacroiliac joints, and anteriorly with each other at the pubic symphysis (Figure 34-1A and B).Each pelvic bone has three components: ilium, ischium, and pubis.The acetabulum is a large cup-shaped structure at the junction where the ilium, ischium. Download Free PDF. TEXTBOOK OF ANATOMY UPPER LIMB AND THORAX. 2019. Hamza Ahmed. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 34 Full PDFs related to this paper. Read Paper. TEXTBOOK OF ANATOMY UPPER LIMB AND THORAX TOPOGRAPHICAL ANATOMY OF LOWER LIMB. N,1 Introduction. The lower limb:- thigh with three compartments - gluteal region - leg with three compartments - foot wth a dorsum and a sole. Interests. Man is bipodal Support and propulsion function of lower limb Transmission of weight and propulsion functions GLUTEAL REGIO In addition, the ratio of the bone volume to the length of each bone showed the most significant sex-related differences (males > females with accuracy of 75.8-98.1 %). These findings indicate the usefulness of virtual CT morphometry of individual lower limb long bones, including volumetry, to estimate the sex and stature in identification
Lower leg. The lower leg is a major anatomical part of the skeletal system. Together with the upper leg, it forms the lower extremity. It lies between the knee and the ankle, while the upper leg. The bones of the lower limb correspond to a designated region of the lower limb. There is a hip region with two hip bones - right and left, each composed of an ilium, ischium, and pubis. Moving distally, we have a thigh with the femur. Though we think of the leg from the hip down, the anatomical term leg actually refers to the portion of the. Nonunion of long bones in lower limbs is a common complication of orthopedic trauma that can be extremely debilitating. This retrospective study describes our experience using expandable intramedullary nails and autologous bone grafting in treating lower limb long bone nonunion with bone defects. Nineteen patients (mean age 38.9 years, range 18-61) with lower limb long bone nonunion and. Lower limb malformations (other than the foot) are rare and scarcely described in medical imaging literature. Such malformations are generally isolated events but in some rare instances, they can be associated with other abnormalities of the bones and/or viscera in constitutional syndromes or disorders of the skeleton .Bilateral malformations are generally inherited in an autosomal dominant.
This chapter discusses osteological variants of the lower limb. This will include true anatomic variants such as accessory ossicles and multipartite patellae, as well as variants of lower limb alignment (rotational and angular) and limb length. The chapter includes some common radiographic variants Bone: Upper limb - 40 Radius: Distal end quadrangular in cross section; concave distal end for wrist joint styloid process: 1-2 cm lower than the styloid process of Ulna dorsal tubercle on post. surface: tendon of extensor pollicis longus loops at her more likely to sustain fractures in areas of the bone near a joint (distal). This includes the wrist (distal radius), shinbone (distal tibia), and thighbone (distal femur). Children with obesity have significantly increased odds of sustaining lower extremity injuries and pain compared to normal weight children Material Properties of Lower Limb Bones ! Neng Yue, Jamie Wright, Costin Untaroiu PhD Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia ABSTRACT The majority of occupant lower extremity (LEX) injuries in automotive crashes occur in the knee-thigh-hip (KTH) complex. While many Finite Element (FE) models have been. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF PAEDIATRIC LONG BONE FRACTURES OF LOWER LIMB BY TITANIUM ELASTIC NAILS *Dr.K.Venkataswamy, Dr.J.Venkateshwarulu, Dr.TandraVenkateshwararao, Dr.Shivanshu Mittal, Dr.J.Sreenath Rao * Assistant Professor in the Department Of Orthopaedics, Mahathma Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Warangal, Telangana, India
This page was last edited on 18 June 2020, at 07:09. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply A prosthetic limb is a common rehabilitation treatment to replace function lost as a result of lower-limb amputation . This treatment places heavy demands on residual limb soft tissues. Rather than supporting the body weight load on the plantar sur-face of the foot, an amputee is forced to tolerate th Lower limb fractures account for approximately one third of all fractures and may result in substantial mortality and morbidity. Although the occurrence and prevention of hip fractures have been the subject of many publications, the epidemiology of all lower limb fractures combined has not been studied extensively in the general population of the United Kingdom
The development of the lower limb requires complex and precise gene interactions. Although the etiologies of PFFD and FH remain unknown, there is a strong association between the two disorders. Associated congenital defects in the lower extremity are found in more than 50% of patients with PFFD, ipsilateral FH being the most common The arrangement of muscles in the lower limb is sim-ilar to that of the upper limb (see Figure 4.34 and Table 4.14). It must be remem-bered that flexion at the knee results in moving the lower leg posteriorly, unlike the upper limb where flexion of the elbow results in anterior movement of the forearm. The extensor group of muscles is located. Upper Limb Anatomy 1) With regard to the pectoral girdle: a) contains three joints, the sternoclavicular, the acromioclavicular and the glenohumeral b) serratus anterior, the rhomboids and subclavius attach the scapula to the axial skeleto