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Normal cervical spine MRI radiopaedia

Vertebral high and signal are normal. Intervertebral discs are keeping normal signal intensity. Spinal canal is preserved and there is no spinal compression Normal by Ozgur; MSK by AT; Normal Cervical and Thoracic MRI by Chiropractor Dr. Cris Hernandez; RACS/UQ Advanced Surgical Anatomy Course - Brain, neck, spine by Assoc Prof Craig Hacking NRA Spine and pelvis by Dr Tom Molyneux CHR 663L Lesson 1: Normal MR & CT by jtaylordacbr; MWU Wed by traci prithcar

From the case: Normal cervical spine MRI. MRI. Sagittal T1. Sagittal T2. From the case: Normal cervical spine MRI. MRI. Sagittal T2. Axial T2. From the case: Normal cervical spine MRI Apart from minor non-compressive cervical degeneration, this is a normal spinal examination. The conus is at the L2 level, with normal cord signal throughout. Capacious spinal canal. Normal marrow and disc signal. Straightening of expected cervical lordosis. No concerning extraspinal finding 29 public playlist include this case. spine 1 by nezar shlaka. UQ Med Yr 4 Orthopaedics - lower back pain by Assoc Prof Craig Hacking . UOE MB1 Back S5 by UoE Radiology. Module N-NKO by Kurt. Normal by Ozgur. lumber spine by Ahmed Elbehery. H+N Anatomy by Dr Derek Smith . Grad Students by Tania pringle This learning pathway combines a cervical spine radiographic interpretation lecture by MSK radiologist Matt Skalski with additional audio commentary, cases and quizzes by Andrew Dixon, to create a unique online learning experience ().). The pathway covers the majority of pathologies you may encounter in the cervical spine ranging from degenerative disease to trauma, with original illustrations.

MRI Axial T2 Barrel-shaped thickening and loss of normal low signal intensity of the cervix that extends into the uterus lower segment, upper vagina, parametrium, and posterior wall of the cervix with close contact with mesorectal fascia are seen (T2B Sagittal T2. Straightened cervical spine with preserved alignment. Multilevel disc dessication. C3-C4 and C4-C5 central posterior disc protrusions indenting ventral thecal sac without any neural foraminal narrowing. C5-C6 disc right paracentral posterior annular tear, extrusion and caudal subligamentous migration up to C6-C7 disc, indenting. Shoulder - annotated x-rays. Case 84. Normal radiographic anatomy of the elbow. Case 85. Elbow x-ray - labeling questions. Case 86. Carpal bones - annotated x-ray. Case 87. Wrist - annotated carpal tunnel view

Normal cervical spine MRI Radiology Case Radiopaedia

Clinical presentation. Patients present with severe, focal neck pain. There may be neurological symptoms due to spinal cord injury.. Pathology. Anterior subluxation of the cervical spine results from posterior ligamentous complex injury, however, there may be an associated posterior intervertebral disc injury and compression fractures of the anterior vertebral bodies 1-3 With the widespread replacement of standard radiographic evaluation of the cervical spine by MDCT, 4, 7 - 10 it is necessary to establish normal values for the thickness of the PVST on MDCT images. To our knowledge, an up-to-date evaluation of the PVST thickness on MDCT images has not been published

Normal cervical spine. (A) Sagittal fat-saturated T2-weighted image shows well-hydrated intervertebral disc spaces and normal cervical cord signal. (B) Axial GRE image shows normal canal and neural foramen. Figure 14-2. Normal lumbar spine. (A) Sagittal T1-weighted image shows normal marrow signal, alignment, and vertebral body heights Not appropriate: uncomplicated acute cervical pain (<6 weeks) with or without suspected radiculopathy (no red flags) does not warrant the use of MRI. Radicular symptoms alone, in the absence of objective neurological signs, do not normally indicate a need for an MRI within an early time period

Cervical injury. Department of Radiology and Regional Spinal Cord Injury Center of the Delaware Valley, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia. This review is based on a presentation given by Adam Flanders and adapted for the Radiology Assistant by Robin Smithuis. Approximately 3 % of patients who present to the emergency.. Traumatic spinal cord injury may result from trauma to the spine which may fracture, compress, or dislocate one or more vertebrae causing direct injury to the spinal cord. Symptoms depend on the region of the spinal cord affected and the severity of the injury. This patient presented with quadriparesis following a traumatic cervical spine injury The spinous process cleft of C2 is likely representing spina bifida occulta. In this case, it is associated with anterior bony projection indenting the posterior aspect of the cervical spinal cord, which is likely the cause of the patient's hyperreflexia. No trauma-related MRI changes could be noted The MRI wrist protocol encompasses a set of MRI sequences for the routine assessment of the wrist joint. Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of an MRI protocol for the assessment of the wrist. Protocol specifics will vary dependin..

Normal cervical and thoracic spine MRI - Radiopaedi

The cervical spine is host to a variety of normal and pathologic soft-tissue calcifications that may be discovered at routine radiography. Normal and variant calcifications include thyroid and tracheal cartilages, nuchal sesamoids, and the stylohyoid ligaments 1. Introduction. Metastases to the spine can involve the bone, epidural space, leptomeninges, and spinal cord. The spine is the third most common site for metastatic disease, following the lung and the liver [] and the most common osseous site [].Approximately 60-70% of patients with systemic cancer will have spinal metastasis MRI protocols are a combination of various MRI sequences, designed to optimally assess a particular region of the body and/or pathological process.. There are some general principles of protocol design for each area. However, the specifics of a protocol are dependent on MRI hardware and software, radiologist's and referrer's preference, patient factors (e.g. allergy) and time constraints The role of imaging is foremost to evaluate for craniocervical dissociation or other catastrophic (e.g. spinal cord) injury, and then to identify and stratify all lesser craniocervical injuries. Plain radiograph. A lateral cervical spine radiograph is commonly obtained to screen for cervical spine injury in the setting of trauma

Continue with the images of the cervical spine. Acute exacerbation of cerebral and spinal MS. Also in the spinal cord there are multiple lesions. On the transverse image a typical triangular shaped dorsal lesion is seen. Images of the brain were otherwise normal. Continue with MRI of the spine Final Imaging Guidelines: Cervical Spine MRI April 13, 2010 1 I. Acute cervical pain (onset within the past 6 weeks) (MRI without contrast unless otherwise specified) Not appropriate: uncomplicated acute cervical pain (<6 weeks) with or without suspected radiculopathy (no red flags) does not warrant the use of MRI CERVICAL RADICULOPATHY WORKUP •MRI • The American College of Radiology recommends routine MRI as the most appropriate imaging study in patients with chronic neck pain who have neurologic signs or symptoms but normal radiographs. • MRI has become the method of choice for imaging the neck to detect significant soft-tissue pathology, such as.

Introduction. The interpretation of cervical spine images can be challenging even for the most experienced radiologist. Radiologic evaluation of the pediatric cervical spine can be even more challenging due to the wide range of normal anatomic variants and synchondroses, combined with various injuries and biomechanical forces that are unique to children Routine MRI of the spine provides useful evaluation of the spinal bone marrow, but nonroutine MRI pulse sequences are increasingly being used to evaluate bone marrow pathology. An understanding of MRI pulse sequences and the normal and age-related appearances of bone marrow is important for the practicing radiologist Full labeled MRI - Normal anatomy of the cervical spine (cervical vertebrae) using cross-sectional (axial, sagittal and coronal) magnetic resonance where the vertebrae, the nervous system, the intervertebral discs and the zygapophyseal joints and the vascularization can be differentiated. This imaging was created from sagittal T1-weighted sequences and T2 reconstructions The Normal Thickness of the PVST on MDCT. Causes of increased PVST thickness include infection, neoplasm, hemorrhage, and fluid accumulation. 21 In the setting of trauma, severe potentially incapacitating injuries to the cervical spine can present with PVST thickening as the only radiographic sign. 22 At the C1-C2 level, increased width of PVST could indicate atlanto-occipital subluxation. MRI Grading System for Cervical Canal Stenosis. An MRI grading system for cervical canal stenosis was developed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus, on the basis of the literature and previously published work [6, 11-13].Cervical canal stenosis was classified into a grading system according to the MRI findings on T2-weighted sagittal images ()

The 2 athletes that have returned to profession sport have not had any additional episodes of neurapraxia or any cervical spine-related complications. Conclusion: MRI T2 hyperintensity in contact sport athletes who are symptom-free with normal examination and no evidence of spinal instability may not be a contraindication to RTP. Additional. There are no readily available radiological criteria for evaluating the depth of the lordotic curve of the cervical spine in normal individuals. In this paper there will be presented a method for determining such measurements. The cervical spines of 180 white persons (90 men and 90 women) taken at random from a group presenting themselves for routine chest studies were examined radiologi-cally The radiographic examination of the cervical spine should include a minimum of three views: lateral ( Figure 6-2 A ), AP ( Figure 6-2 B ), and AP open mouth of C1/C2 ( Figure 6-2 C ). Fractures and dislocations are best visualized on the lateral projection ( Figure 6-2 A ). Rotational injuries and fractures of the lateral masses may be evident.

Normal spine MRI Radiology Case Radiopaedia

Normal trauma cervical spine MRI | Radiology Case

Although the diagnostic criteria state that MRI of only the sacroiliac joints is sufficient because inflammatory lesions rarely occur in the spine alone , one study showed that 27% of patients with spondyloarthritis had spinal lesions and normal sacroiliac joints MRI protocol for stroke assessment is a group of MRI sequences put together to best approach brain ischemia.. CT is still the choice as the first imaging modality in acute stroke institutional protocols, not only because the availability and the easy and fast access to a CT scanner, but also due the better sensitivity for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) diagnosis 1

The central canal of the spinal cord is present at birth and becomes progressively obliterated. Cadaver studies have shown that it may persist partially or completely. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described on MRI. We reviewed 794 MRI studies of the spinal cord, and found 12 patients ( A thoracic kyphosis is normal when measured at 20-40 degrees. The cervical spine (neck) and lumbar spine (lower back) have lordotic curves that face the opposite direction - like a backward C. When the thoracic spine curves outside of the normal range, it creates a hunchback look and the shoulders slump forward This MRI cervical spine (C Spine) cross sectional anatomy tool is absolutely free to use. Use the mouse scroll wheel to move the images up and down alternatively use the tiny arrows (>>) on both side of the image to move the images.>>) on both side of the image to move the images Radioanatomy of the cervical spine: Cervical vertebrae [C I-C VII] : Radiographs , Anterior view 2 plates of entire spinal column, in front and profile impacts, allowing the spinal vertebrae to be numbered and showing the physiological curvatures (cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, sacral kyphosis (sacral)) Publicationdate October 29, 2019. Ultrasound is the preferred modality in neonates with suspected occult spinal dysraphism (OSD). OSD implies the presence of one or more spinal cord anomalies, which can cause tethering of the spinal cord and possible neurological and bladder or bowel function deficits. Ultrasound is easy to perform, since the.

Normal lumbar spine MRI Radiology Case Radiopaedia

  1. The cervical spine is the portion of your spine that runs through your neck. A cervical spine MRI scan is used to help diagnose: other soft tissue disorders, bone abnormalities, or joint disorders.
  2. Chris Partyka. C-spine x-ray interpretation, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2017. Available at: The ABC's of the cervical spine provide a helpful mnemonic to guide the systematic assessment of these x-rays. Remember; you require all three views (lateral, AP and odontoid/open mouth view) for an adequate study. A: Adequacy
  3. Cervical X-rays: A Systematic reading. The most commonly ordered spine radiographs, x-rays of the cervical spine are used to evaluate trauma and everyday neck pain. X-rays are also useful for evaluation of the postoperative patient. The three essential views are AP, Lateral, and Odontoid
  4. MRI imaging is the mainstay of diagnosis of patients with CSM. Whilst the MRI can described findings associated with myelopathy, there has been a lot of debate as to whether it can tell you how bad your myelopathy is, and whether or not you would respond to surgery. In this regard, changes within the spinal cord itself have been a major focus

How to Read a MRI of Cervical Stenosis with Spinal Cord Injury ¦ Spine Surgeon in ColoradoAN APPROACH TO CT HEAD NARRATED 2 Knee Menisci by Geoffrey Riley, M.D. MRI Sequences Head CT Interpretation Made Easy MRI Brain Anatomy Explained by Neurologist MRA (magnetic resonance angiogram) head radiology search patter Magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice to evaluate stenosis and disc pathology. 1,14 MRI has many advantages: it is noninvasive, has no ionizing radiation, has high sensitivity in diagnosing stenosis, has high soft tissue contrast, and it best depicts cord, nerve roots, and bone marrow abnormalities. 1,14 Standard MRI sequences in.

Primary spinal epidural lymphoma predominantly affects patients with a median age of 55 to 65 years, but has also been described in pediatric patients. One series of 94 cases of spinal extradural lymphoma showed that the thoracic spine was most commonly involved (69%), followed by the lumbar spine (27%), and the cervical spine (4%) Jun 23, 2016 - A cervical MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the part of the spine that runs through the neck are Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America, Vol. 19, No. 3. The Normal Spinal Column: Overview and Cervical Spine. Quantitative changes in the cervical neural foramen resulting from axial traction: in vivo imaging study. The Spine Journal, Vol. 8, No. 4. The Spine Reversal of cervical lordosis is a frightening finding on many MRI reports and is typically an enigmatic diagnostic conclusion for patients. Unfortunately, so many doctors neglect to provide a comprehensive explanation of these cervical MRI findings, so patients turn to websites, just like this one, with questions which remain unanswered, even after paying exorbitant sums of money for. Diagnosing brachial plexus pathology can be clinically challenging, often necessitating further evaluation with MRI. Owing to its vague symptomatology, uncommon nature, and complex anatomy, the brachial plexus presents a diagnostic dilemma to clinicians and radiologists alike and has been the subject of many prior reviews offering various perspectives on its imaging and pathology. 1-5 The.

Spine Bone Tumor/Mets Yes MRI Cervical, Thoracic or Lumbar With and Without Discitis Yes MRI Cervical, Thoracic or Lumbar With and Without Extremity Numbness/Tingling No MRI Cervical, Thoracic or Lumbar Without History of Lumbar Surgery Yes MRI Lumbar With and Without Multiple Sclerosis Yes MRI Cervical or Thoracic With and Withou Hemangioma in the Spine. By Chris Faubel, M.D. —. There are two very important things to know about benign hemangiomas in the spine. 1. Distinguishing from cancer metastasis to the spine. 2. Knowing the sequelae of a benign hemangioma in the spine Charcot spine radiopaedia Charcot joint - spine Radiology Case Radiopaedia . described originally as a histopathologic finding but also seen on MRI ; Spinal MRI (cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine) showed normal cord with no pathologic findings in this patient. Discussion Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an idiopathic. This preview shows page 20 - 36 out of 43 pages.. Hangman's Fracture • 35 male post high speed trauma • Bilateral pars or pedicle fracture Cervical Spine CT • 35 male post high speed trauma • Bilateral pars or pedicle fracture Cervical Spine C

X-ray Interpretation: Cervical Spine Radiopaedia

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  3. Mar 9, 2018 - Flexion teardrop fractures represent a fracture pattern occurring in severe axial/flexion injury of the cervical spine. They are important to recognize because they indicate extensive underlying ligamentous injury and spinal instability. Associat..
  4. Interestingly, the first place that this inflammatory destruction begins in the spine is in the upper cervical area during the early course of the disease. 2 Instability at the atlantoaxial junction is the most common form of cervical dysfunction that occurs. 1 This area contains highly sensitive neurological structures that are protected by.
  5. Nearly 80 percent of our spine patients are able to recover with nonsurgical treatment. But when physical therapy, medications, and spinal injections fail to relieve neck or back pain, we help patients with surgery. We treat more than 1,000 patients with herniated cervical disc problems each year. To make an appointment call 513-221-1100
  6. Anatomy and biomechanics of injury. The cervical spine can be divided into two main regions: the craniocervical junction, from the occiput (C0) joint to the axis (C2), and the sub-axial cervical spine, which includes injuries from C3 to C7 .Almost two-thirds of cervical spine injuries occur within the sub-axial cervical spine, with dislocations occurring most commonly at C5-C6 and C6-C7 levels
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Cervical carcinoma Radiology Case Radiopaedia

  1. cervical cord Haemangioblastoma with associated syrinx - usually appear as discrete nodules, there can be diffuse cord expansion. An associated tumour cyst or syrinx is common - T1: variable relative to the normal spinal cord. T2: iso-hyperintense, focal flow voids especially in larger lesions, surrounding oedema and associated syrinx are usually seen, hemosiderin capping may be present
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  3. Normal 8-24 cm Oligohydramnios <5 cm Polyhydramnios >24 cm 2. Deepest vertical pocket (DVP) Normal 2-8 cm Oligohydramnios <2 cm Polyhydramnios >8 cm Reddy UM, Abuhamad AZ, Levine D, et al. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;123(5):1070

Cervical disc extrusion Radiology Case Radiopaedia

Sagittal (a) and axial (b) T2-weighted MR images of the cervical spine show severe cervical stenosis at the C4-C5 spinal level secondary to a herniated disk-osteophyte complex extending into the anterior epidural space, and buckling of the ligamentum flavum in the posterior epidural space (arrows). These findings result in complete focal CSF. Normal bone was noted on CT performed 1 year before and also on lumbar spine MRI performed 5.5 years before this MRI. View larger version (98K) Fig. 12 — Gaucher disease in 35-year-old man The MRI is the most commonly used test to evaluate the spine because it can show abnormal areas of the soft tissues around the spine. The MRI is better than X-ray because in addition to the bones, it can also show pictures of the nerves and discs. The MRI is done to find tumors, herniated discs, or other soft-tissue disorders If you're having neck pain, your doctor may order a cervical MRI from American Health Imaging. What does an MRI of the cervical spine show by Clark West, Stefan Roosendaal, Joost Bot and Frank Smithuis. Department of Radiology and Regional Spinal Cord Injury Center of the Delaware Valley, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia and the Radiology Department of the Free University Medical Center and the Academical Medical Center, Amsterdam

Cervical Myelopathy in a Food Industry Employee David Collier, SPT;1Emily LaBranche, SPT; 1Lance M. Mabry, PT, DPT Figure 1: Sagittal T2 MRI demonstrating C3-5 spinal cord signal intensity change consistent withmyelomalacia Figure 2: Axial 3D Hyceat C3-4 demonstrating severe central canal stenosis with compression of the spinal cor For Patients: http://neckandback.comFor Professionals: http://studyspine.com Accredited Training: http://studyspine.com/register/Forum Discussion: http://a.. Spinal MS lesions often occur in the cervical region and less frequently in the lower thoracic spinal cord (T7-12) Depending on their age, MS plaques appear normal or slightly hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2; the spinal cord may be enlarged when the disease is active and is atrophied when chroni

US of the GI tract - Normal Anatomy; Breast. BI-RADS. Bi-RADS for Mammography and Ultrasound 2013; Calcifications. Differential of Breast Calcifications; Breast Cancer. Staging and Treatment of Breast Cancer; Male Breast. Pathology of the Male Breast; MRI. MRI of the Breast; Ultrasound. Ultrasound of the Breast; Cardiovascular. Anatomy. Cardiac. Cross-sectional anatomy: Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the head and neck. An MRI of the face and neck was performed on a healthy patient, using T2 weighting, (image size: 320 * 320 pixels) (600 images). We did not select the T1 weighting because it provided a lower contrast A high degree of suspicion based on a dangerous mechanism of injury or a neurologic injury should flag a cervical spine that appears normal at initial inspection for careful appraisal. Identification of cervical spine injury should trigger imaging of the remaining spinal axis because noncontiguous injuries occur in 10%-15% of cases (4,5) An MRI grading system for cervical central canal stenosis ranks stenosis in grades: grade 0 (no stenosis), grade 1 (obliteration of less than 50% of the subarachnoid space without any sign of cord deformity), grade 2 (central canal stenosis with spinal cord deformity; the cord is deformed but no signal change is noted in the spinal cord) and. Plan the axial slices on the sagittal plane; angle the position block perpendicular to the cervical spine. Check the positioning block in the other two planes. An appropriate angle must be given in the coronal plane on a tilted neck (perpendicular to the cervical spine). Slices must be sufficient to cover the soft tissue neck from frontal sinus.

Dynamic MRI provides direct vision of the neurologic structures and in many cases the site of bony impingement and cord compression that may not be appreciated on routine views. 52, 55 - 57 CT scans have been extremely helpful in evaluating anomalies of the upper cervical spine. Three-dimensional reconstruction aids in visualizing anatomic. The MRI protocol for examination of the lumbar spine in patients with symptoms of nerve compression is quite simple. Basically we rely on the sagittal T1W- and T2W-images and correlate the findings with the transverse T2W-images of the levels of suspected pathology e-Anatomy is an award-winning interactive atlas of human anatomy. It is the most complete reference of human anatomy available on web, iPad, iPhone and android devices. Explore over 6700 anatomic structures and more than 670 000 translated medical labels. Images in: CT, MRI, Radiographs, Anatomic diagrams and nuclear images MRI protocol for pituitary gland is a group of MRI sequences put together to improve sensitivity and specificity for the assessment of lesions of the pituitary gland (e.g. pituitary adenoma) and other sellar and suprasellar abnormalities (check the article on pituitary region masses for some examples).. MRI is nowadays the imaging procedure of choice for the pituitary gland assessment, largely.

Viewing playlist: Annotated anatomy Radiopaedia

MR is the best imaging modality to examen patients with shoulder pain and instability. In Shoulder MR-Part I we will focus on the normal anatomy and the many anatomical variants that may simulate pathology. In part II we will discuss shoulder instability. In part III we will focus on impingement and rotator cuff tears. Introduction Problems with spinal shots revised Cervical Spinal Stenosis with pressure on cord at C3 and C4 and C5 Severe 3 level cervical spinal stenosis - Should I see a neurologist or neurosurgeon? I am in Chronic Pain. What do I do?? Pending Cervical Surgery, 2 levels I have DDD & Spinal Stenosis - Help lumbar spine mri with and without contrast[ age 59 MRI STIR PSIR LCR LNR Pulse Sequence 1. Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease which involves almost 2.5 million people all around the world ().The symptoms of this disease vary, depending on the amount and the kind of nerves which are affected by this disease ().The lesion can be present in both brain and cervical cord of the patients (3-5) Interpreting cervical spine x-rays in the pediatric population can be a challenge due to normal anatomic variants. At age 8-10 a child's cervical spine reaches adult proportions. Normal variants to be considered in the younger populations include: 1. The atlantodens interval (ADI) may be up to 5mm in the pediatric patient whereas the upper.

Anterior subluxation of the cervical spine Radiology

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine is a safe and painless test that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed images of the cervical spine (the bones in the back of the neck). An MRI differs from a CAT scan (also called CT scan or a computed axial tomography scan) because it does not use radiation Case: Cervical stenosis. Figure. The MRI (left) shows cervical stenosis at C4, C5 and C6 with a small degree of movement at C3-C4. There is also loss of the normal spinal alignment and cervical lordosis due to the degeneration. There are osteophytes (bone spurs) shown on the CT (middle) that are pushing on the spinal cord Axial MRI of the Lumbar Spine - T2 weighted image at the L4 level. On this view centered over the L4-L5 disk, one can see well the cauda equina surrounded by CSF (note that CSF is bright on T2-weighted images). The axial view also nicely visualizes the neural foramina, posterior bony elements and paraspinal muscles. The axial view is the. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine uses radio waves, a magnetic field and a computer. It creates clear, detailed pictures of the spine and surrounding tissues. MRI does not use radiation and may require an injection of gadolinium contrast material. Gadolinium is less likely to cause an allergic reaction than iodine contrast material A normal variant is an atypical finding that is seen in a percentage of the population, which generally has no clinical significance, and is considered within the spectrum of normal findings. Scroll down to view images of normal anatomical variants. Click on an image to see a full larger version with arrows

Normal trauma cervical spine MRI | Image | Radiopaedia

Imaging findings on MRI include sacroiliac joint effusion and synovial outpouching, surrounding reactive bone marrow edema and enhancement in both the sacrum and iliac bones, loss of the normal low-signal-intensity margins of cortical bone, and rim-enhancing abscess formation in the adjacent iliopsoas muscle or paraspinal soft tissues (Fig. 24A. Frontal and lateral radiographs of the thoracic spine demonstrate destruction of the endplates of two contiguous vertebral bodies with considerable endplate sclerosis, findings characteristic of discitis. Discitis, Lumbar Spine. There is destruction of the normal endplates. (red arrows) of L4 and L5 with narrowing of the intervening disc space 19 Spine 20. CERVICAL SPINE 20 21. C1 - C7 21 22. CERVICAL SPINE ANATOMY 22 Two anatomically distinct regions Cervicocranium (C1 and C2) Lower cervical spine (C3 to C7) 23. C1 VERTEBRA - ATLAS 23 • Named after the Greek mythological Atlas who supported the world on his shoulders. 24 Images of the thoracic and lumbar spine are often large and the bones should be scrutinised in detail (see images below). Note: The upper T-spine may not be visible on the lateral view - if injury is suspected here then a swimmer's view may be helpful - (see Cervical spine - Normal) DISH (Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis) DISH, also known as Forestier disease, is a common disorder of unknown etiology characterized by enthesopathy of the spine and extremities, that usually presents with back pain and spinal stiffness. Diagnosis can be confirmed with radiographs of the cervical and thoracic spine